Now that I have expanded to 4th and 5ht grade ELA, I will have new topics to cover. Today, we’re going to talk about teaching theme and summarizing.
The Standards for Teaching Theme and Summarizing
- RL.4.2: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
- RL.5.2: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
Now for the teaching aspect. HOW can we teach our students to determine theme?
1. Review the different types of literature.
2. Introduce what theme is.
3. Teach students to summarize and relate that to theme.
4. Introduce texts and passages.
5. Allow them to practice over time.
1. Review the Different Types of Literature.
When teaching theme, it is essential to use a variety of different literary texts. This is because theme often comes in many different forms. Theme is not spoken or defined anywhere in the text, the students have to infer and critically think to figure out theme. Myths, folk tales, tall tales, and more are perfect for teaching theme because these types of literature almost always have an overall message from the author. So, before I teach theme, I like to back up and teach the different types of texts that you’ll be using over the entire unit.
(Link: RL4.2 Theme)
During their genre mini-lesson, students can review the types of literature that will have great theme lessons within them. Then, they can use this knowledge to do a book find to find the different types of literature. Before this lesson, head to the local library and stock up on at least five or six different books from each folklore category.
2. Introduce What Theme Is.
Now, it’s time to introduce what theme actually is. Anchor charts are handy for students when teaching a new topic. In my ELA pack, there are two pre-made anchor charts that you can display on the whiteboard, or you can recreate them and complete them with the students. They are ideal for teaching theme and summarizing.
On the left, you see the pre-made anchor charts that you can project on the whiteboard when teaching a mini-lesson. Or you can use these pre-made anchor charts to create an anchor chart with your students on chart paper.
Once you have introduced theme, it is time to teach the students how to find theme using text, which is our next section.
Then, give students a matching game that will help them read a short paragraph and read between the lines. Usually, no texts that authors write will have the theme written out clearly. The students will have to comprehend and infer what the theme is.
Or, this activity from my 5th grade unit that involves 3 short stories, where students can read and determine the theme of each. This activity can be done as a whole group, small group or partners. It is a good step to take before students read full texts.
3. Introduce Text and Passages.
Once students can recognize what theme is, they will need to be able to apply it to their texts. Below are seven links to books with good themes. These are affiliate links for Amazon! They will be useful to use during your read-alouds or partner reading time in your theme unit.
- The Hungry Coat
- The Rough Faced Girl
- Peppe the Lamplighter
- The Empty Pot
- Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People’s Ears
- White Socks Only
- Mr. Peabody’s Apples
Here are three reading-related activities for teaching theme. In my ELA packs, I always offer passages and printables to use with any text. In the top left picture, you see a printable that students can use with tall tales or folk tales from your classroom library. On the right at the top, you see a myth about Arachne and Athena, with interactive notebook activities for comprehension. And the bottom picture, seen above, are two sample passages and comprehension questions from my Theme pack! These are all great ways for students to get their practice with theme and reading.
This graphic organizer can be used with any fiction text. It is a great way for students to practice summarizing and theme.
4. Teach Students to Summarize and Relate that to Theme.
Also included in this standard is summarizing. The beginning part of the standard deals with finding the theme, but the 2nd part deals with summarizing. Teaching your students to summarize is not easy at all, but hopefully, they’ve been practicing retelling and recounting in the last three years of primary grades! That will help them summarize. Teaching theme and summarizing can be challenging but my resources will help you!
Teaching the SWBST is such a great device to use for summarizing. It’s easy for students to remember, and it covers all the bases when it comes to summarizing. You can choose to project the mini anchor chart on the board or use it as inspiration to create your own with your class, like the one shown above.
5. Allow Them to Practice Over Time.
Students need to practice theme and summarizing throughout the year and in many different ways.
Task Cards for Teaching Theme and Summarizing
Incorporating task cards, interactive notebooks, passages, printables, and more into your ELA rotations is highly suggested. If you teach Daily 5 or reading centers, these will fit perfectly into your different stations. Have students complete them with partners or independently. Just let them practice a lot! After your initial theme unit, which may take a week or two, I suggest having theme be a cyclical practice where they’re working on it throughout the year as a review.
Need Resources for Teaching Theme and Summarizing?
For 4th and 5th grade, I have a specific resource for theme. Click the images below to grab your grade level!
Want more blog posts for upper grades?
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